(ed. However, in the last decade, military coups in Mali have severely affected its population. "peerReview": true, Page 121 note 3 Price, , World Politics, pp. In advanced democracies, it is not a focus of politicians. 2019. Hence the civil–military coalition in Upper Volta, the civilianised Togolese régime, and the largely personal cliques of General Idi Amin in Uganda, and General Jean-Bedel Bokassa in the Central African Republic, have been dealt with as part and parcel of the same phenomena of ‘military régimes’, while the growing influence of the military in Gabon and Guinea has been left outside the scope of research. Mpanza, Siphesihle "relatedCommentaries": true, pp. Coups are usually messy, violent affairs that smash democracy to install dictatorships. 34–5Google Scholar; and Bienen, Henry, ‘The Background to Contemporary Studies of Militaries and Modernization’, in his The Military and Modernization (Chicago, 1971), p. 4.Google Scholar. In fact, only Lesotho has had two. It is both wasteful and irresponsible. Political instability has become endemic to Sub-Saharan Africa. 305–22.Google Scholar. According to this theory, a military intervention can happen as a result of disbelief in the socio-economic development of the country. Page 125 note 1 Quotations from Lefever, op. Simple and complex typologies of civil–military relations and of military coups have been constructed; statistical data – both hard and soft – has been marshalled and subjected to factor and regression analysis, in order to validate general or middle-range theories of military intervention. 181–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar; and Feldman, A. S., ‘Violence and Volatility: the likelihood of revolution’, in Eckstein, H. Project MUSE® "languageSwitch": true, With the support of several high-level co-conspirators, including two of the five directors, Napoleon arranged for a special legislative session to take place outside Paris on November 10. Perhaps the most obvious expressions of this interaction are coups d'itat. * Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 7th January 2021. environment in the country involved - an atmosphere of political stability. HFS provides print and digital distribution for a distinguished list of university presses and nonprofit institutions. ), Armed Forces and Society (The Hague, 1968).Google Scholar. "figures": false To become a member of a group in the psychological sense implies the internalization of its central norms and values – for to be a member implies certain modes of thought and behavior.’, Page 121 note 4 Ocran, K. A., A Myth is Broken (London, 1968),Google Scholar and Afrifa, A. 2020. Page 119 note 4 West Africa, 7 04 1972.Google Scholar Significantly, Colonel Acheampong recently ordered the reorganisation of this force, and summary sentences for those discovered co-operating with smugglers from across the border. XII, No. 0 0. Page 109 note 6 A somewhat different typobogy has been developed by Luckham, A. R., ‘A Comparative Typology of Civil-Military Relations’, in Government and Opposition (London), Winter 1971 pp. The absence of successful coups doesn’t always guarantee peace though. The usurpers do so not for personal gain, but for the benefit of many. ), The Role of the Military in Underdeveloped Countries (Princeton, 1962), pp. Johnson, Thomas H. } This item is part of JSTOR collection A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army . development. Military interventions usually take place in countries with low-income status. In 1952, the Egyptian Revolution known as the July 23 Revolution began. Conflicts within the political leadership are among the most common form of political strife. We have studied and found that civilian authority giving the space to military to intervene. ©2000-2021 ITHAKA. Page 113 note 2 See Rapoport, David C., ‘A Comparative Theory of Military and Political Types’, in Huntington, Samuel P. For that, role of military in politics in developing countries is counted vastly. pp. option. Coups have generally become rarity across Africa as democracy has taken hold. ... lockdown and is popping up … Page 120 note 4 This has caused discontent among officers not involved in the anti-Government operation who see themselves passed over, and in the junior ranks. Render date: 2021-01-07T18:00:20.852Z The revolutions initial aim was given as overthrowing King Farouk I but it was soon shown to have more political ambitions as the group soon moved to abolish the constitutional monarchy and establis… "lang": "en" 403–4Google Scholar: ‘An individual's reference groups are those social groups to which he psychologically relates himself, with which he identifies. Types . 69–90.Google Scholar, Page 116 note 1 Levy, Marion J., Modernization and the Structure of Societies (Princeton, 1966), vol. 228-251) found that military coups were relatively frequent in Latin American countries which ranked low on measures of what he termed social complexity. cit. Why? The years are backdated because of unavailability of the data in developing countries regarding military interventions. cit. Immediately upon returning from his famed Egyptian military campaign in October 1799, Napoleon Bonaparte began scheming to overthrow the five-member Directory that ruled France. 1979. Nelkin, Dorothy, ‘The Economic and Social Setting of Military Takeovers in Africa’, in Journal of Asian and African Studies (Leiden), II, 1968, p. 231Google Scholar: ‘in every country, the issues which best account for the case of military access to power, relate to economic circumstances and their social consequences’. To access this article, please, Access everything in the JPASS collection, Download up to 10 article PDFs to save and keep, Download up to 120 article PDFs to save and keep. "comments": true, The Press is home to the largest journal publication program of any U.S.-based university press. Purchase this issue for $44.00 USD. Hopkins Fulfillment Services (HFS) In the past several years there has been a proliferation of studies on coup d'états in Africa and the political role of African military structures. A military coup is the violent or non-violent overthrow of an existing political regime by the country's military. Mistakenly, the study of civil-military relations in developing countries brings to mind mainly coups d’état and civil wars. ), Bureaucracy and Political Development (Princeton, 1963).Google Scholar. Growth of Military StatesAs late as 1961 the African image had not been tarnished to any great extent by the incidence of military coups. A., The Ghana Coup London, 1967).Google Scholar, Page 122 note 1 Price, , World Politics, p. 407.Google Scholar Interestingly, Nkrumah did refer to the coup leaders as possessing ‘Sandhurst mentality… tend[ing] to frown on everything in our Ghanaian way of life which did not conform with English customs and traditions.’ Enahoro, Peter, ‘Military Rule in Africa’, in Africa (London), 4, 1971, p. 20.Google Scholar, Page 122 note 2 Price, , Comparative Politics, pp. Page 120 note 5 Nordlinger, loc. If we study the previous military coup in the country we will know that lack of transparent and accountable government contribute to the factor by which those coups occur. After more than a quarter century, Human Rights Quarterly is widely recognized as the leader in the field of human rights. The paper concludes that military interventions via coups were not entirely ‘wasted years’, but created some new management elites who contributed a lot to the economic, social and political developments of the country. In the latter half of the 19th century, the U.S. government initiated actions for regime change mainly in Latin America and the southwest Pacific, including the Spanish–American and Philippine–American wars. 1131–48. "metrics": true, p. 174. The threat is not from military coups but governments in power. The purpose of this case study is to look at the public opinion after military coups. Request Permissions. Authoritarian government lacking in accountability engendered military rule. Page 124 note 2 Unconventional definitions and nomenclature also abound. 8 years ago. Khisa, Moses Perhaps much of the coup-proofing has already been done. And once in power, the officer corps' performance has been examined in order to generate insights into its propensity to serve as a modernising or developmental agent. B.S., A.M.E … Page 109 note 4 Cf. Zeff, Eleanor E. Perhaps much of the coup-proofing has already been done. 361–79.Google Scholar. cit. See also Pye, Lucian, ‘Armies in the Process of Political Modernization’, in Johnson, J. J. MUSE delivers outstanding results to the scholarly community by maximizing revenues for publishers, providing value to libraries, and enabling access for scholars worldwide. and Indeed, according to Ocran, op. First, Ruth, Power in Africa (New York, 1970), p. ixGoogle Scholar: ‘The army coup d'etat is plainly a short-circuit of power conflicts in a situation where arms do the deciding.’, Page 109 note 1 See Riggs, Fred, ‘Bureaucrats and Political Development: a paradoxical view’, in LaPalombara, J. The first military coup was led by General Ayub Khan in October 7, 1958, which continued upto 1968 for eleven years. cit. In fact, the success rate of coup attempts has fallen over time. Page 117 note 2 Kiba, Simon, ‘La Vole de la “Nouvelle Marche” au Togo avec le RPT’, in Afrique nouvelle, 31 03 1972.Google ScholarMesan is still largely a paper structure, and the Congolese P.C.T., captured by militant elements, has not evoked much mass participation. This situation is not propitious for economic development. Peterson, Derek R. © 1982 The Johns Hopkins University Press Page 111 note 4 Uganda, , Birth of the Second Republic (Entebbe, 1971).Google Scholar. "openAccess": "0", 65 and 67.Google Scholar, Page 110 note 2 Fisher, Humphrey J., ‘Elections and Coups in Sierra Leone, 1967’, in The Journal of Modern African Studies, VII, 4, 12 1969, p. 635.Google Scholar, Page 110 note 3 Decalo, Samuel, ‘The Politics of Instability in Dahomey’, in Genève-Afrique (Geneva), VII, 2, 1968, p. 27.Google Scholar, Page 111 note 1 See Glele, Maurice, Naissance d'un état noire (Paris, 1969), p. 290Google Scholar; W. A. E. Skurnik, ‘The Military and Politics: Dahomey and Upper Volta’, in Welch, op.cit. Anonymous. of Contents. I would say that here in the United States or Canada that we do not have military coups because we are a democratic society. JSTOR is part of ITHAKA, a not-for-profit organization helping the academic community use digital technologies to preserve the scholarly record and to advance research and teaching in sustainable ways. and Notable counter-coups include the Ottoman countercoup of 1909, the 1960 Laotian counter-coup, the Indonesian mass killings of 1965–66, the 1966 Nigerian counter-coup, the 1967 Greek counter-coup, 1971 Sudanese counter-coup, and the Coup d'état of December Twelfth in South Korea . It finds that abortive coups, rather than successful coups, had the greatest adverse impact on economic growth over the 1960-1986 period. Being staged on a regular basis—especially in less-developed African countries to have never experienced a military coup moreover, an. Growth over the 1960-1986 period failed in the USA, the success rate of coup.. Peace though Birth of the coup-proofing has already been done quarter—of Africa ’ s countries! 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