[148], Shivaji was well known for his strong religious and warrior code of ethics and exemplary character. [citation needed] Shivaji's father Shahaji Bhosale was Maratha general who served the Deccan Sultanates. [82], In October 1670, Shivaji sent his forces to harass the English at Bombay; as they had refused to sell him war materiel, his forces blocked English woodcutting parties from leaving Bombay. Shivaji's position under house arrest was perilous, as Aurangzeb's court debated whether to kill him or continue to employ him, and Shivaji used his dwindling funds to bribe courtiers to support his case. [133][134] However, during the sack of Surat in 1664, Shivaji was approached by Ambrose, a Capuchin monk who asked him to spare the city's Christians. [65], In April 1663, Shivaji launched a surprise attack on Shaista Khan in Pune, along with a small group of men. [76] Aurangzeb also permitted Shivaji to attack the decaying Adil Shahi; the weakened Sultan Ali Adil Shah II sued for peace and granted the rights of sardeshmukhi and chauthai to Shivaji. [155] At the end of the 19th century, Shivaji's memory was leveraged by the non-Brahmin intellectuals of Bombay, who identified as his descendants and through him claimed the kshatriya varna. Raigad Fort was newly built by Hiroji Indulkar as a capital of nascent Maratha kingdom. By. He was born on February 19, 1630 at Pune district. [56], After months of siege, Shivaji negotiated with Siddi Jauhar and handed over the fort on 22 September 1660, withdrawing to Vishalgad;[57] Shivaji retook Panhala in 1673. [127] He gave his forts names such as Sindhudurg, Prachandgarh, and Suvarndurg. Maharashtra brought legal action against the publisher under regulations prohibiting enmity between religious and cultural groups, but a High Court found the Illustrated Weekly had operated within the bounds of freedom of expression. Dadar's Shivaji Park is one of the popular localities in the city and the park is a venue used often for sports, cultural and political activities in the city.The park is visited by children, senior citizens and fitness enthusiasts on a daily basis. Shiva Kashid dressed like Shivaji Maharaj, with a crown of Maharaj on the head, and sat in Shivray’s palanquin, came out of the fort with a hundred soldiers. And soldiers who used it wore multiple chakrams in their arms to keep throwing it at their enemies. [19], Shivaji was devoted to his mother Jijabai, who was deeply religious. 5. [81], Shivaji sacked Surat for second time in 1670; the English and Dutch factories were able to repel his attack, but he managed to sack the city itself, including plundering the goods of a Muslim prince from Mawara-un-Nahr who was returning from Mecca. "[160], In 1919, Sarkar published the seminal Shivaji and His Times, hailed as the most authoritative biography of the king since James Grant Duff's 1826 A History of the Mahrattas. [113][114], The question of Shivaji's heir-apparent was complicated by the misbehaviour of his eldest son, Sambhaji, who was irresponsible. It was conceptualised & pioneered in 1981 by Late Smt. Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj, the founder of Maratha empire, raised a small yet effective land army.For better administration, Shivaji abolished the land-grants or jagir for military officers and instituted a system of salary or cash payment for their services. At that time, Shivaji was encamped at Panhala fort with his forces. [154] Muslim writers of the day generally described him as a plunderer and marauder. [136], Shivaji was contemptuously called a "Mountain Rat" by Aurangzeb and his generals because of his guerilla tactics of attacking enemy forces and then retreating into his mountain forts. She is an old name in stand-up comedy. [84], Shivaji sent a displeased letter to Prataprao, refusing him audience until Bahlol Khan was re-captured. The weapon still needs some time to completely develop for conventional use, but sure made China insecure. [118], After Shivaji's death, Soyarabai made plans with various ministers of the administration to crown her son Rajaram rather than her stepson Sambhaji. [102][103][104], Beginning in 1674, the Marathas undertook an aggressive campaign, raiding Khandesh (October), capturing Bijapuri Ponda (April 1675), Karwar (mid-year), and Kolhapur (July). 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